Category Archives: Trad Climbing

Post and pages that are about trad climbing

Rock Climbing Harnesses

What rock climbing harness you use is in the main comes down to fit and comfort. The only advice worth considering is what you intend to use the harness for. Traditional, sport, alpine and winter climbing have different requirements. It is far cheaper to start with to get one good multipurpose harness with adjustable leg loops.

The reason for having adjustable leg loops on your climbing harness is that if you are going to climb year round or your weight is likely to fluctuate, then you can adjust the leg loops dependant on how many layers you are wearing on any give day.

Other choices are type of gear loop and what type of buckle the harness has. Hard plastic type gear loop that protrude from the harness are good people who tend to rack up gates in (see the later chapter of lead climbing), whereas the less ridged gear loops suit people who rack up gates out. If it is your first harness you probably won’t know which feels better for you unless you try and clip stuff to the gear loops.

Racking up on a climbing harness is like belly buttons, you are either and innie or and outie. Not like in this photo both.
Racking up on a climbing harness is like belly buttons, you are either and innie or and outie. Not like in this photo both.

The number of gear loops and there location is also key. If you are only ever going to sports climb then a couple of gear loops on each side is all you will ever need. However if you are going to trad climb then you will need at least two on each side and one on the back to carry enough equipment.

The type of buckle the harness has can be either a fast-tech buckle that you pull tight and just tuck in the slack end to an elasticated holder. The other type requires the user to deliberately double back the buckle and lock it off. Personally I prefer the double back buckle as on long multi pitched route, I have found the fast-tech buckle has become loose. There was also a problem on some harnesses where the fast-tech buckles on leg loops good be undone, when using a leg prussic to act as a safety on abseils. These issues are small and easily avoidable and both type are considered safe.

Some harness are specifcally design with women in mind and one manufacturer has even created a harness, where every part of the harness is rated to at least 10kN, after a series of accidents where people have inadvertently clipped into their gear loops, only normally rated at a few kilos. The risk of this can be lessened by keeping your belay device clipped to a rear gear loop, so you have to unclip it and move it to the appropriate place for belaying (not the front gear loop!).

If you an outdoor instructor who is going to spend a lot of time in you hanging in your harness or you are planning to climb some big walls. Then getting a Big Walling harness will be advantageous. As the added padding will make your life better in the long run.

A fully loaded Trad climbing harness
A fully loaded Trad climbing harness

Fitting a Climbing Harness

It will be in your interest to go to a good climbing store to get a harness, as the greater the choice the more you can see which is the right harness for you.

First off try on the type of harness you have decided you needed from the criteria above. Then try on a couple of sizes around the size you think and look at how much spare tape there is for adjustment when the harness is fitted properly. Too much excess and the harness is too bib and too little and it is too small. It may take a few tries to find the right size.

Once you have done this see how the harness fits, are the gear loop symmetrical on your body compared to the belay loop at the front? Does  it feel comfy? Can you clip into a point and suspend yourself from it, if so remember these are ‘sit’ harness so sit down rather than try and hang upright.

If it feels right then maybe this is the harness for you. Above all take you time when choose a harness. As one will be be better than the rest for you, and remember you have a different sized body to your friend so simply buying the same harness as them may not be the best idea.

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Warming Up Overview

Warming up will get the heart, lungs, muscles, joints and tendons ready for action. Whilst some people will do a full aerobics style warm-up, some will opt for easy bouldering or climbing. Some climbers will choose to do none. Although this might feel like you will be able to get more climbing in because you have not ‘wasted’ energy on the warm-up, the opposite is true.

Warming up promotes blood flow through the muscles, dilating the capillaries and actually allowing you to climb harder for longer. It will also help switch your mind from normal life to to climbing mode. A good warm up will help make your muscle and tendons more flexible, a bit like warming up blue tack or silly putty. Once you have got them warm they are less likely to snap.

If you don’t warm up and jump on the hardest route straight away you will get what climbers refer to  ‘flash pump’ – your muscles instantly become exhausted because the blood cannot flow effectively through arteries, veins and capillaries restricting the muscles they supply. It is often difficult to recover from the flash pump as you need to go all the way back to the start of your warm up.

Warming Up

Starts heart and lungs working. Promotes good blood follow through cap- illaries. Helps tendons prepare for activity by making them more elastic. Helps promote uid in the joint to increase lubrications. Helps switch the mind to climbing mode.

A good warm-up should last about twenty minutes. It will help to set the scene for your whole session, get you in the right frame of mind and help you to concentrate on skilful climbing.

Video of Warming Up using Bouldering

Warming Up Key Elements

  1. Raise you heart rate by light jogging and extremely easy bouldering/climbing. Do this until you feel out of breathe and are starting to sweat. (5 – 10 minutes)
  2. Do some more very easy climbing, you should never feel pumped so maybe try slabs to start with. (5-10 minutes)
  3. Work up to one grade below you maximum (5 – 10 minutes)
  4. You should be ready to climb at your max now. If you find yourself getting pumped then drop a few grades to a very easy route, this will help you de-pimp.

The Pump

Bodybuilder’s coined the phrase ‘the pump’ for the swollen feeling and appearance of muscles after a workout. For climbers it is pertinent to climbing in our anaerobic zone, where the build up of lactic acid makes the muscle less and less effective. It starts with a dull ache and ends in a complete inability to contract the muscles effected, resulting in failure. If you carry on to failure the muscle will feel solid to touch, and you will need at least 15 minutes rest to recover.

Iy is essentially cause by you contracting the muscles so hard that you start to squeeze the capillaries shut and starve the muscles of oxygen and energy. In order to de-pump you need to rest the specific muscle but also use them lightly. As the blood pumping too the muscle will help so the accumulation of lactic acid, it is however the contraction of muscles that helps flush the lactic acid out of the muscles.

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Warming Up

Whether you climb indoor or outdoors on routes or boulders you need to do some form of warming up. Failure to do so will often lead to poorer performance and/or injury.  We cover some of the basics of warming up for indoor and outdoor climbers.

Warming up for the Indoor Climber

At an indoor climbing wall a good warm-up will extend the length of a session, by allowing you climb harder for longer.

The majority of climbing walls will have some easy top roping for groups, these routes are ideal for warming up on as they will allow you to work your muscles without tiring. You need to operate below the level where you nd your arms becoming pumped because of the build up of lactic acid. You should be excercising in anaerobic way. If you do start to become pumped lower off and drop the grade and angle of the routes that you are warming up on. Very easy bouldering on slabs, traverses or juggy routes can offer an alternative.

Throughout the warmup, how does your body feel; are you finding it too intense? If so, make things a easier, the level you warm up at will rarely be too easy. You will be able to feel your body warming up, and the blood flowing more freely through the muscles, a raised heart and breathing rate and a glow of light perspiration. Keep going until that feeling is well established (for about twenty minutes).

The warm-up is a great time to introduce some climbing drills that help reinforce technique on this easy terrain. So as part of your warm-up visit some of the exercises we’ll in the Basic climbing techniques section. Exercises like climbing only facing left, then right, being sideways on (zigzagging up the wall), climbing silently, climbing slowly, Climbing one or no handed and climbing like a monkey. All these exercises develop good technique and used during the warm-up will help switch you mind to climbing mode. Doing them every time you go climbing will engrain them in your subconscious and help ensure that you think about effeciency whenever you climb.

Warming up at the wall

  • Remember climbing during the warm-up can never be too easy!
  • A warm-up should last for at least twenty minutes.
  • Consider doing some technique drills.

Video on the importance of warming up

Warming up at the wall

Warming Up Outside

At the crag it may be harder to do a thorough warm-up, although sometimes a long walk-in suffices. You may find that by the time you have rigged a top rope or racked up you have already cooled down, so consider doing an easy route as a warm-up. If you have warmed up on the approach wrapping up in an extra layer of clothing once you have arrived at the bottom of the cliff can make a big difference.

If climbing an easy route isn’t possible then bouldering up and down the first few moves of a climb several times is a good alternative. This process of going up and down the start of a route can be extended to actually placing gear and coming back down, not only getting warmed up but also getting to know the route and the gear.

Simply walking around the bottom of the crag, moving and flexing your arms and hands as well as jogging on the spot will all help to get the heart and lungs into gear. Whatever you do, any form of warm-up will help you climb better and fight off the pump.

Warming up at the crag

  • The walk-in can be part of the warm-up.
  • Start on an easy route or boulder up and down the start of the route.
  • Boulder around the base of the crag.
  • Use an easy route or small boulder to work on technique.
  • Doing an easy route can help you get to know the rock type.

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Climbing Fundamentals

Whilst there are simply hundreds of thousands of individual climbing movements. There are a few climbing fundamentals both in terms of climbing and training that will help give you a strong foundation when it comes to developing your climbing skill.

This section covers the most basic of those climbing fundamentals that will be key to you starting out climbing on the right foot. If you have already been  climbing a while you might find that you want to revisit these climbing fundamentals once in a while at the very least. However many good climbers now use some of the exercise here as part of their warm up to engage brain.

To set you off on the right path then we are going to cover the importance of warming up, stretching and those essential climbing fundamentals. With these key climbing skills you will be able to apply them to any facet of climbing. Be that Bouldering, Sport, Trad or indoor climbing.

Here Wez Hunter shows he has mastered the climbing fundamentals as he tip toes along a sloping ledge on the classic slate route Poetry Pink, E4 6a, Rainbow Slab
Here Wez Hunter shows he has mastered the climbing fundamentals as he tip toes along a sloping ledge on the classic slate route Poetry Pink, E4 6a, Rainbow Slab

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Basic Climbing Safety: Lead Climbing

You would probably put placing gear and building belays high on your list of skills needed for safe lead climbing (these are skills you will have begun to develop from top-roping). There are some additional skills you need to consider:

  • Belaying a lead climber.
  • Belaying a second (belayer at top of pitch).
  • Judging route vs climbers ability.
  • Assessing the dangers of a route.
  • Understanding and following guidebook descriptions.
  • Moving ef ciently over the rock.
  • Abseiling and escaping from the climb.

How do these skills affect our safety, what are the risks and how can we control them?

The risks involved in lead climbing are far greater than in any other form of climbing. You need to carefully consider whether you are aware of and can manage them all. After all remember it is the risk you don't know you are take that are likely to kill you!
The risks involved in lead climbing are far greater than in any other form of climbing. You need to carefully consider whether you are aware of and can manage them all. After all remember it is the risk you don’t know you are take that are likely to kill you!

Climbing safety systems are most often aimed at stopping the consequences of a slip or a fall. In lead climbing, especially when starting out, consider what you can do to prevent a fall in the first place. This may go back to choosing the right route that suits your style, ability and which you have knowledge of. More often than not the actual psychological pressures put on you during lead climbing have a negative effect on your climbing ability. Being aware of these risks and the consequences of a fall are paramount. Taking a lead fall on an easy route often means that there are ledges and slabs to hit on the way down. The chances of injury are higher falling off an easier route than they are on a steeper route with equal protection. Of course the chances of falling off in the first place are lower. The best way to prevent injuries from falls is not to fall off.

“the leader never falls” old max- im from the days of tieing in by wrapping a hemp rope around your waist in a swami belt.

No matter how well chosen your route, there will come a point when you will overstretch yourself and be unable to go up or down. At this point you want to know that you gear placements are good and that the belayer is doing their job well. You can help yourself to reduce the fall by down climbing and also warning the belayer that you are about to fall. Often it is best to accept the fall and jump off rather than fall and slide down the rock.

Leading a route can take a considerable length of time and your belayer may become restless and innatentive. Both belayer and climber should be happy with how long they expect spend climbing a pitch. Even a momentarily loss of concentration by the belayer can result in the climber being dropped.

Despite this though for many people, leading a route is the essence of climbing. There are no quick ways to prepare for the techniques and head games of lead climbing. Learning to lead is mainly about staying as safe as possible by route selection and being coached by others through placing gear; the rest of the game is efficiency, tactics and judgement. The tactics of how to approach a route and break it down into manageable chunks is covered in the tactics section. The head games that are involved in lead climbing are looked at in the mental skills and techniques.

Consider an inefficient leader. They take wires off one gear loop on their harness and clip them back on another, after a while it can take a minute or two for them to find the size of wire they are looking for. They have chosen to place gear mid-move or from a poor hold, if they made another half move they would be stood in balance and more able to clip easily. Having placed their wire it takes a few attempts for them to clip the rope into the quickdraw. Throughout they are understandibly showing signs of stress. Stress makes them a defensive climber rather than a relaxed and lazy climber.

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Basic Climbing Safety: Basic Belays

Top roping (or bottom roping) is how most people start out climbing and, in the context of this site, one of the most appropriate ways to repeat the exercises in safety. If done properly, it should be an very low risk activity. There are however several fundamental principles that you can learn whilst making basic belays for top roping, that are carried through to lead climbing.

Risks associated with Top Rope Climbing Outdoors
Risks associated with Top Rope Climbing Outdoors

The safe rigging of basic belays for a top or bottom rope requires you to consider some fundamental principles as well as ways to avoid problems. These principles apply right through to the more advanced belays you will come across on multi-pitch climbs.

The ABC of Basic Belays

The rst step when rigging top ropes is your ABC; Anchors, Belay and Climber. To keep the forces in-line with gravity all three should be in-line to prevent either the belay, belayer or the climber being pulled sideways across the cliff. If the belay is pulled across the cliff edge it may result in damage to the rope and/or unequal loads on the anchors, and if it occurs repeatedly or on a sharp edge it may well cut through the ropes (catastrophic failure!)

The ABC of Basic Belays. A- Anchor, B-Belayer and C-Climber. Ideally all three are in a row.
The ABC of Basic Belays. A- Anchor, B-Belayer and C-Climber. Ideally all three are in a row.

The IDEAS Principle of  Basic Belays

The second acronym, which will help to guide you whilst building a safe and basic belay is IDEAS:

  • Independent
  • Directional
  • Equalised
  • Angles
  • Solid
Ticking all the boxes and ful lling the fundamental principles. This bottom rop setup has the anchors,belay and climber all in line and pulling the anchors in the right direction. The anchors are solid and linked to make them equalised and independent, on top of all this the angles between the anchors is acute.
Ticking all the boxes and ful lling the fundamental principles. This bottom rop setup has the anchors,belay and climber all inline and pulling the anchors in the right direction. The anchors are solid and linked to make them equalised and independent,on top of all this the angles between the anchors is acute.

Independent – each of the anchors should connect separately to the belay so if one anchor fails the other(s) won’t be shock loaded. This is an important principle to follow throughout the system when linking of anchors with either slings or rope to make basic belays.

 

The Sling on the left is a free hanging V, whilst it will self equalise it will extend and shock load the belay should one of the anchors fail. Much better is the example on the right by adding the knot the anchor is equalised but will not longer extend.
The Sling on the left is a free hanging V, whilst it will self equalise it will extend and shock load the belay should one of the anchors fail. Much better is the example on the right by adding the knot the anchor is equalised but will not longer extend.
The Sling on the left is a free hanging V, whilst it will self equalise it will extend and shock load the belay should one of the anchors fail. Much better is the example on the right by adding the knot the anchor is equalised but will not longer extend.
The rope on the left is a free hanging V, whilst it will self equalise it will extend and shock load the belay should one of the anchors fail. Much better is the example on the right by adding the knot the anchor is equalised but will not longer extend.

Directional – the anchors, belay and rope should be placed ready to take a load in the direction that any force on the belay will occur. In a top rope this will typically be towards the cliff edge and directly down. If the anchors are pulled in the wrong direction, they may not withstand the load.

Anchors are very often directional in nature. In that they will be stronger with the right direction of all and maybe even fail if the pull comes from the wrong direction.
Anchors are very often directional in nature. In that they will be stronger with the right direction of all and maybe even fail if the pull comes from the wrong direction.

Equalised – any link between your anchors should be under equal tension when loaded in the direction that will result from a fall. Done well, this will share the load equally between the anchors and reduce the chance of anchor failure, and also help to prevent a shock load should one of your anchors fail.

Left: Poorly equalised sling. Only one anchor is bearing weight and if it fails the other will be shock loaded (inset left: this arrangement might be equalised with a different angle of pull) 3. Well equalised slings.
Left: Poorly equalised sling. Only one anchor is bearing weight andif it fails the other will be shock loaded (inset left: this arrangement might be equalised with a different angle of pull). Right. Well equalised slings.

Angles – the angle between the two outside anchors should be kept to a minimum. The smaller the angle the better the force is shared. An acute (narrow) angle is good, a right-angle is alright and an obtuse (wide) angle is bad. Under 60° the load is shared roughly 50% onto each anchor, by 90° the load is shared at 70% of the overall load, whilst over 120° the load exerted on each anchor is 100% or more of the overall load (so there is little point having two anchors over 120° apart). So in practice our anchors are linked with rope or slings the greatest angle between anchors should not exceed 90°.

Diagram of angles in belays.
Diagram of angles in belays.

Solid – reliable anchors are the key to any basic belay. Check the rock surrounding your placements to ensure that the rock is not hollow or loose. Tap the rock with a karabiner and if it sounds hollow look elsewhere. The placements you choose should be as good as possible.

Although it looks good the placement is compromised as the rock is cracked.
Although it looks good the placement is compromised as the rock is cracked.

Another Alternative that americans use is EARNEST.

  • E – Equalized – Anchors should be constructed so that each component of the anchor carries an equal amount of the load.
  • A – Angles – Are the angles to wide?
  • R – Redundant – Anchors should consist of multiple components in case one or more components were to fail.
  • NE – No Extension – Anchors should be built so that if one or more of the components fail the remaining components won’t be shock loaded.
  • S – Strong (or Solid) – The stronger the better.
  • T – Timely – Anchors should be as simple and timely as possible without giving up any of the other ERNEST qualities.

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Intro To Trad Climbing Course

Our intro to trad climbing course are a great way to get to know loads about basic trad belays. You’ll also get a load of chance to make them yourself under the watchful eye of our coaches, before you belay off them.

We will also teach you all you need to know to leave the course ready to trad lead climb on your own.

eMail us to find out more.

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Basic Equipment Maintenance

There are various standards that each and every piece of protective equipment must pass for it to be fit for purpose and saleable, often involving randomized destruction testing during manufacture. As we use and abuse the kit we need to be able to make informed decisions as to when to retire and replace our equipment. This section contain information that will help you with basic climbing equipment maintenance.

General rule of thumb on equipment maintenance and life
  • Metal Equipment – 10 year life span.
  • Webbing – 5 years Storage (On shop shelf) and then ve years use.
  • Ropes – 5 years from the date of manufacture.

It is important to realise that heavy use might reduce these lifespans.

There is anecdotal evidence that metal work in particular can withstand the test of time. DMM tested a featherlite carabiner from the 1960’s which still broke at 20kN, similarly they have run ‘Break what you Brung’ workshops as various events and have found twenty year old carabiners regularly breaking at there cited strength. This is possible because Aluminium hardens with age, which also means that a new wire is slightly plastic and may mould itself into a crack slightly when you fall on it, but and older wire may not. Whilst this shouldn’t compromise the placement it is an interesting consequence of metal ageing.

Wires

Checking the wire rope on some nuts for damage. Top, a brass nut showing corrosion. Bottom three wires rejected for showing damaged wires.
Checking the wire rope on some nuts for damage. Top, a brass nut showing corrosion. Bottom three wires rejected for showing damaged wires.

Check your wires regularly, by examining the swaged wire rope for damage, if any of the strands are broken then it is time to replace it (the strength will be effected and the sharp wire may abrade your webbing or rope). Slide the metal wedge down the wire to see what is going on underneath it too.

Karabiners

It is a myth that if you drop a carabiner on the floor from the slightest height it may magically hit a sweet spot, causing micro-fractures and compromising the integrity of the carabiner. Aluminium carabiners are forged at over 400 degrees Centigrade so the metal forms strong molecular bonds that are elastic. However if you drop a piece of gear down and entire pitch and it lands on solid rock then you would be advised to retire it.

All metal work is liable to corrosion especially if you climb at or near the coast. Salt in the air will stick to the metal and stay there slowly corroding the metal whilst it languishes in your rucsac until the salt is washed away. Rinse all hardware in fresh water after climbing at sea cliffs, to limit corrosion. Gear is often anodised, which creates a barrier to corrosion, however, any scratch to the anodised surface exposed the metal underneath to the corrosive environment, so even anodised equipment needs a rinse.

Cams

Cams (with all their moving parts) need to be regularly oiled with specific oils like the Metolius cam oil, they can also be cleaned using Metolius Cam Cleaner. Maintaining the cams will prevent them from seizing up and consequently needing to be replaced. Oil the axle which the cams rotate around and make sure all the cams move independently of the axle and each other. Sometimes a long fall onto a cam or dirt will stop the cams moving independently, making the cam less stable when placed. Also the trigger wires can break but can often be replaced by returning the unit to the manufacturer for a small charge. If the unit is over ten years old they will not replace the trigger.

Both cams and hexes have a webbing sling, which will have a lifespan less than the metal parts. These can be replace by the manufacturer at a price. Webbing is more susceptible to damage from UV ligh and also abrades quickly. Abrasion causes more damage than you might imagine.

Destruction tests show a new dynema sling cut completely through 1/3 of the width of the sling, and then abraded across its whole width, will snap first where it is abraded before it tears at the cut. This is why the five year rule of thumb is best understood as a maximum lifespan, as heavy use will result in abrasion all over the sling.

Harnesses

Harnesses may also suffer abrasion, general wear and tear as well as specfic wear points (where the buckles are tightened and loosened every time we put a harness on and take it off and also where the rope is threaded through the strong point of the harness).

A worn harness was the cause of the death of Todd Skinner, a famous and experienced climber, who had order a new harness that hadn’t arrived prior to his climbing trip.

Ropes

Your rope too needs to be inspected and maintained, the rope’s lifespan of ve years would also be best seen as a maximum life. Heavy use or dam- aged from being weighted over an edge may damage the sheath of the rope or the core, if the damage is severe then retire the rope. You should check your rope every time you use it (you probably do this without realising), as you ake the rope out, feel it run through you hands, feeling for uffy sec- tions or irregularities in the rope, then check these section more thoroughly, if it feels like the core is damaged then it is better to replace the rope than risk your life.

A rope damaged when lowering a climber over and egde.
A rope damaged when lowering a climber over and egde.

Don’t treat your rope badly – don’t step on it, dry it after use if it gets wet, wash it from time to time in fresh water and don’t add your own half way marks with marker pens (which may damage the sheath).

Whilst UV will damage rope just like webbing and slings, it is less of an issue with rope as the sheath with represents about 10% of the overall strength of the carabiner, the remain 90% strength provided by the core is protected, recent tests of insitu abseil tat exposed to an alpine environment, has shown whilst reduced in strength compared to slings the reduction is not as dangerous as slings exposed to UV.  Store your rope away from direct sunlight.

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Basic Climbing Equipment

In order to climb safely there are many pieces of climbing equipment that you will need. This is just a short overview of each of those pieces of equipment and some advice on the pro’s and con’s associated with each piece of equipment. Helping to turn you into an informed climber.

In the modern era there are many equipment manufacturers, all of which have to build the equipment to stringent regulations laid down by the UIAA, European Commission or similar body. As such all equipment is safe and fit for the purpose it was designed. Much of the choice comes down to personal preference and dare I say it brand loyalty.

Climbing Equipment

To find out more information on each of the follow pieces  of rock climbing equipment follow the links to individual pages.

  • Harness
  • Helmet
  • Rock Shoes
  • Belay System
  • Rope
  • Karabiners
  • Slings
  • Nuts
  • Hexes
  • Cams

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Basic Safety in Rock Climbing

This may seem like teaching your grandmother to suck eggs, but taking time to increase our awareness of risk and safety is often overlooked. It’s common sense, when you look at a hazard (like being high off the ground) and the risk (of falling) you will consider ways to reduce the risk.

Many of the dangers at the crag can affect the climber, the belayer and even bystanders. So it is important to keep an eye on the situation around you as it develops and adapt your plans to suit. The key to climbing safely at the beginning of your climbing career is to choose the right crag, grade and route.

Choosing the right climb may seem difficult. Guidebooks are a starting point but local knowledge can be invaluable, so talk to people you meet at the crag or wall, the sales assistant in an outdoor shop and instructors or outdoor centres, most will happily give advice on venues. Eventually you need to assess a crag or a route’s suitability for yourself. Often, just by being aware of a hazard will greatly reduce the risk of an accident.

Its the risks you don’t know you are taking that are likely to kill you.

We’ll consider a simple break-down of top roping, lead climbing and bouldering. The hazards, the likelihood of an accident, any measures we can take to reduce the risk and the residual risk after we’ve taken action. Many of these things are common sense.

You may find the technical side of climbing daunting, but by becoming more aware of risk, ropework and sound judgement you’ll become a safer climber. With regular practice, these skills will become second nature and your safety will increase. Spend time learning ropework and safety skills from a professional instructor or centre. This is one area of your climbing for which there is no substitute for informed instruction.

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