Category Archives: Sport Climbing

Placing Gear Efficiently

Effective placement of gear comes down three things, knowing your racking system, developing a good eye for placements as well as the appropriate size of relative protection, and using rests where possible to place gear whilst in balance.

The first two are down to hands on experience with your rack and gear placements. You might go through you racking system at home, trying to reach straight for the piece of gear you think of and take it off and replace it in the same position in time each time. Getting to know gear placements is down to time spent at the crag.

You can however practice the hands-off rests we cover in hands off rests section. By being in balance you avoid placing gear mid move in a strenuous position. You may often find that the instant you have placed your runner you find a better position to place it from. Try to be relaxed when placing gear and ask yourself whether if you make another half move you will be in a more balanced position?

When at a rest it is sometimes possible to see a gear placement above. You may be able to judge the size from the rest and select the correct wire and clip it to a quickdraw ready to place, saving time and energy. Some people climb up with the gear ready in their mouths. Be aware that it is quite easy to drop the gear, possibly meaning you don’t have anything to place. Besides, metal plays havoc with you tooth enamel!

Placing Gear Efficiently exercise

Rack up ready to climb and walk along the bottom of a cliff playing ‘guess the placement’. Find a crack and guess the best size of gear. Experiment with other sizes to see if you got the best fit. See section on various gear placements.

You may be able to judge the size of a camming device placement in finger widths; one finger = cam 1, two fingers = cam 2 and so on.Try it and see if it works for you.

Placing gear on lead exercise

When you are leading try to place gear only where you can stand in balance or from a hands-off rest. Place the gear from here and before you leave this position take time to look up and spot the next rest and gear placement. Take the time to look at how you might climb the next section.

This can be described as anticipating the next moves and gear. So ask yourself two questions where you can stand next and where you can place the next gear. Until you can answer these two questions don’t move.

WARNING — Lead climbing is dangerous. Before attempting this exercise it is worth practicing placing gear on your route whilst on top rope, trailing a rope to simulate lead climbing. Make sure that your belayer has the neccesary skill to stop you if you fall!

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Reading Routes and Using Guidebooks

Hopefully by now you will have developed some energy saving habits, as well as a understanding of how to carry on learning. After all it will be your own discoveries at the crag that will carry you above and beyond. Even a single pitch might require all of the skills outlined so far. The trick is to identify the different styles you will need to use – you need to be able to ‘read’ the route. To be adept at reading a route the skills and movements of climbing will already be subconscious. Your body needs to have used the movements hundreds of times before it starts to lay down subconscious muscle memory.

There are a couple of ways you can help: Think about climbing whenever you can! By thinking of the movement you are excercising some of the same brain functions as when you are actually climbing. By climbing as quickly as possible, quicker than you can think through the moves, you can exercise your subconscious skills.

A climber taking a moment to visualise and mentally prepare to lead Free Stine Henge , E7
A climber taking a moment to visualise and mentally prepare to lead Free Stine Henge , E7

Developing subconscious route reading exercise

Find a pitch that you should find relatively easy to climb and climb it as quickly as possible, the guide for how quickly should be the point at which you feel that you are making moves before you have had the time to really think about what you are doing. Yummy be using bad technique, so climb the pitch again slowly. Did one feel efficient? Did you find any of your instant decisions helped? Repeat this exercise often on both route you know and don’t know. 

Guidebooks

The ability to read routes is pointless if you can’t find the crag. Guidebooks are another essential tool; some are pictorial, others are more descriptive, all should help you find the crag, the start of the route and the climbing line.

Read the route description and carefully examine the topos. Try and identify key features and landmarks described in the book, and try and visualise the line of the route on the crag. On multi-pitched route this becomes increasingly difficult as part of the crag may well be obscured from view. At times it may be necessary to check the guidebook on the approach to the cliff as you often get a better overview of the route.

A classic climbers club guide book with line drawing of cliffs and long route descriptions
A classic climbers club guide book with line drawing of cliffs and long route descriptions

When people first start using guidebooks they often misinterpret the information, a slight groove becomes a corner, a crack becomes a chimney, etc. The trick is to constantly learn from you mistakes, (typically this can be trying to make the description of your chosen route fit the section of cliff you are stood below!).

Guidebook Exercise

Before you head out spend some time in the comfort of your own home to do some armchair research. This will probably not only involved a guidebook nowadays but also google and youtube. As you’ll be surprised how many photos and videos there are out there of the really popular routes around the world. This will help you visualise the route, crag and line.

When approaching the crag have the guidebook to hand. If you get a good view of the crag you can identify possible approaches to the bottom of the crag and work out the rough line of one or more of the routes on the crag. Which will all help you to arrive at the bottom of the route that you wish to climb.

At the bottom of the route read the description again and look at the topo. Your route may not be shown, but the lines of the routes to either side might. Visualise the line of the climb. It can be helpful to ask other climbers around what routes they are climbing but they may be just as lost as you! 

Find the right start of a route is a great start, as it means the rest should fall into place, sometimes it can seem rather ambiguous.

If you are setting up a top rope you need to identify features at the top of the crag that will help you find the top of the route. Or alternatively place some rucksacks or a climbing partner just out from the base as a reference point to locate the appropriate place to rig your ropes.

When climbing the route let the belayer have the guidebook and keep it open on the right page, and if you get confused get them to direct you, as they often have a better view of the bigger picture.

Once you have finished the route, try re-writing the description in your own words. Does the guidebook use different words to describe the features and different phrases to describe the climbing?

ROCKGENERALCOURSE

Reading Routes

Talk to other climbers, they might be able to tell you where they found the going tough or where they found a crucial gear placement. They may also be able draw comparisons with other routes that you have climbed. Use the internet as someone may have written about there experiences, maybe they got lost and have key piece of information to share.

As you approach the route and can see the whole thing, identify any features or landmarks that may help you to navigate your way to the top. Look for any obvious rests or gear placements. Binoculars may be useful to examine the route from below, or you may get a better view by climbing an easier adjacent route. On a single pitch climb it may be possible to walk round to the top. The more angles you view the climb from the better the three dimensional image of the route you will have.

Identifying the type of terrain and how best to climb is at the heart of reading a route. It comes down to breaking a route down into sections, ideally in between obvious rests. Think about what skills you are likely to need and visualise yourself climbing particular moves. As you do this at the base of the route you are switching your brain to climbing mode.

You need to continue to read the route as you climb; not only to follow the line but also to react to the terrain and climb using appropriate technique.

Reading routes exercise

Look up at a route from the ground and try to identify the skills you may need, where the rests are, where the crux moves are, what kind of belay awaits at the top of the pitch and so on. Now climb the route and see if your expectations were right. Take a photocopy of the topo and mark down your thoughts or write them on a piece of notepaper before you climb, so you can review them afterwards. Were you drastically wrong anywhere? If so where? What made you wrong? How could you improve your eye for judging routes?

Try this on every route you climb, you don’t always have to take notes. The more your route reading develops the closer to the getting things 100% right you will become … although it is unlikely you will ever be totally right!

Reading routes tips

  • Visualisation is key; you might imagine seeing a line on the rock, hearing yourself talk through the route or recall a written set of instructions.
  • Your plan may be wrong, the skill of reading a route whilst climbing is just as important.
  • Use rests on the route to look at the next section, re-formulate your plan and identify the next rest
  • Real hands on experience of using guidebooks and looking at climbs is required to develop this skill. Learn from your mistakes!

Colour coding your route

How you colour in a route will be a personal thing, green climbing for most will be very easy, usually with a good spattering of ledges to rest on.

Yellow would be for the blanker sections where the holds are smaller, and the rests are further apart. Most of the moves will require a degree of thinking but the rests, climbing and angle of the route will mean that you shouldn’t feel like you are getting pumped.

Red is the steep and harder section, maybe just a single move, roof or bulge in the rock. It will be to hard to hang about on these sections and they will require a sense of urgency or power to overcome. Identify a place to rest and/or place gear after them, so that you have a point to aim for and no feeling of desperation through the moves.

Visualisation exercise

Draw your route on paper using a colour scheme to to indicate different climbing styles; green circle = rest, green = easy, yellow = Requires a little thought but is not that pumpy, red = hard climbing requiring power, speed and technique (the hardest moves you are capable of and you will become pumped).

Try to visualise your colour coded route on the rock and use this plan to climb the route.

Were there any differences in between the plan and the execution? If so did you spot the problem before, during or after you had to climb that section of the route and could you have spotted the problem earlier?

Using colour to break a route down into easy section, crux and sustained parts. As well as highlighting rests.
Using colour to break a route down into easy section, crux and sustained parts. As well as highlighting rests.

Visualisation tips

  • Some people might nd this visualisation technique more useful than a written description.
  • Try and see your body making the moves. You mat see yourself from a third person viewpoint (like a movie) or through your own eyes from a rst person viewpoint (if this is the case try and feel the moves as well).
  • By thinking of the moves you are engaging your pre-motor cortex, and turning your mind on to climbing mode.

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Single Versus Double Ropes

Many climbers choose to use double or half ropes when trad or multi pitched sport climbing. However the whole single versus double ropes is not necessarily that simple.

Single Versus Double Ropes for climbing

Single Ropes

  • Approximate diameter 9mm to 11mm
  • Easier to belay on one rope
  • Easier to hold a fall so good for beginners
  • More likely to get rope drag
  • Can only retreat half the rope length at a time
  • Can be used on its own
  • easy to use on straight up climbs
  • Harder to managed on wandering lines and traveses
  • High impact force cause by lack of stretch
  • can leave second with nasty pendulums

Double Ropes

  • Approximate diameter 7mm to 9mm
  • harder to belay two rope simultaneously
  • Harder to hold falls on skinny ropes
  • less likely to get rope drag
  • can retreat the whole length of the rope as you have two of them.
  • Have to be used in pairs
  • not good for indoor or single pitch sport climbing
  • Easy to use on a straight up route
  • Easier to managed complex wandering routes
  • lower impact force cause by stretchier thinner ropes
  • can help protect second whilst traversing

Belaying with double rope

Belaying with double rope takes a lot more skill, as effectively you can be taking in on one rope and paying out on the other and vice versa. As such getting sed to belaying on double ropes will take time and most importantly practice.

Belay on double ropes. Here the climber can pay out one or both rope by using his thumb to control the live ropes. They can also take in either by controlling what rope(s) they are using with the dead rope by splitting the ropes. (see next photo)
Belay on double ropes. Here the climber can pay out one or both rope by using his thumb to control the live ropes. They can also take in either by controlling what rope(s) they are using with the dead rope by splitting the ropes. (see next photo)
How the grip the dead rope when double rope belay. Note the split at the ring and middle finger.
How the grip the dead rope when double rope belay. Note the split at the ring and middle finger.

Belaying with a double rope exercise

At the base of the crag or at home have a practice using double ropes by attaching the belay device to both ropes and having a friend randomly ask for slack or to take on both ropes, as well as individual ropes.

once you have the basic then start making it more complex, so to test you ability. The key is throughout the whole exercise to never let go of the dead rope. Can you pay out with one rope and then take in with the other only to reverse the whole thing in a moment?

Once you have master this try using double ropes for real, but on a climb that is really easy for everyone, bit leader and second who is belaying. As this is about both leader and belayer coming to terms with the extra rope.

Why we need to be able to pay out with one rope and take in with the other whilst belaying with double ropes.
Why we need to be able to pay out with one rope and take in with the other whilst belaying with double ropes.

When you are leading with double ropes there instantly become many different ways you can use them. As do you keep one for the left and the other for the right or do you mix it up? Often it is hard to tell what is best unless you look at the route and make a plan to manage the ropes before you leave the ground. You can also ask the belayer for advice as they can sometimes see the bigger picture.

Two ways to use double ropes when climbing. Both work and help reduce rope drag.
Two ways to use double ropes when climbing. Both work and help reduce rope drag.
Other ways to use double ropes to most effect. Left - alternating the rope should make any fall less. Middle - A wander route can have left and right runners as it meanders. Right - When traverse it is often better to have a top and bottom rope to help reduce rope drag.
Other ways to use double ropes to most effect. Left – alternating the rope should make any fall less. Middle – A wander route can have left and right runners as it meanders. Right – When traverse it is often better to have a top and bottom rope to help reduce rope drag.

Learn-to-rock-climb

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Racking up for Trad Climbing

Using your rack efficiently is down to dexterity, remaining calm and staying organised. Know what you are carrying, where it is and make sure that when you take something from you rack you return it to the same place. The consequence of a messy rack is wasted time and energy spent looking for the small wires or large hex’s. Racking up well for trad climbing will safe you time and heart ache in the long run.

The first decision you have to make is gates in or gates out, either all the gates of the karabin- ers on your gear loops facing in to your body or away. There is no right or wrong way, just one way or the other, not both.

Racking up on a climbing harness is like belly buttons, you are either and innie or and outie. Not like in this photo both.
Racking up on a climbing harness is like belly buttons, you are either and innie or and outie. Not like in this photo both.

The next problem is what to rack where and, for that matter, what to take with you? Again there is no right answer, but there are a few wrong ones. Your personal preference will quickly fall into place but experimenting with new ideas is helpful, especially on those rainy days when you’re stuck at home itching to get out.

Racking up top tips

1 - Racking up for an easy route with a basic rack for trad climbing. 2- Racking up for long and more complex routes with gear arrange small on the left and large on the right. 3 - The same rack as 2 but with the gear arrange wires on the left and cams on the right.
1 – Racking up for an easy route with a basic rack for trad climbing.
2- Racking up for long and more complex routes with gear arrange small on the left and large on the right.
3 – The same rack as 2 but with the gear arrange wires on the left and cams on the right.

Wires (nuts or rocks)

Everybody has a different idea as to how many wires to take on a route. If you are climbing on a gritstone edge then the chances are you will be able to make a reasonable guess as to the sizes you’ll need and which it might be prudent to double up on. On longer and multi-pitch routes it is better to double up on all sizes of wires, and rack them accordingly, as you will not be able to see the whole route and may need a greater selection of gear.

A rack of DMM wires
A rack of DMM wires

How to rack even ten wires is a problem, as even this is too many for a single karabiner. To rack twenty, break them down into sets of small, medium and large with between 6 and 8 wires on each karabiner. It’s best to have a small overlap in the sets; so if you were going to have a doubled up rack of wires from 1 to 10, one way to break them down would be:

  • Small – size 1 x 2, size 2 x 2, size 3 x 2, size 4 x 1
  • Medium – size 4 x 1, size 5 x 2, size 6 x 2, size 7 x 1
  • Large – size 7 x 1, size 8 x 2, size 9 x 2, size 10 x 2
Too many wires racked onto a single karabiner will make it hard to select the right one and make you more prone to drop wires off the karabiner as well.
Too many wires racked onto a single karabiner will make it hard to select the right one and make you more prone to drop wires off the karabiner as well.
A good way to rack up wires is to break them down to small, medium and large like shown here.
A good way to rack up wires is to break them down to small, medium and large like shown here.

You could switch one of the size 10 wires for a size 11, giving you something slightly bigger. Wires now go all the way up to size 14, but you might have those sizes already covered by other large gear like hexes or cams

If you are going to have a double set of wires it is better to have one set of wires from one manufacturer and the other set of wires from another company. The sizes will be slightly different, giving you a wider range of placements.

Learn-to-rock-climb

How you rack these on your harness is up to you, but stay organised. Some people go for all the wires on one side or split small wires on one side, large on the other.

Sometimes the route might require microwires, or RP. These tiny nuts are the extreme end of protection with many only offering marginal protection due to there size. Often these are places in large numbers so that if some break one may well hold your weight!

A selection of micro wires. Left DMM offsets, middle RP's and right DMM brass offsets.
A selection of micro wires. Left DMM offsets, middle RP’s and right DMM brass offsets.

There is also a more specialist nut, called a slider, these are often good in very small, almost parallel sided cracks. Seldom used, often on routes where it is known to be the only available runner, as such it is mentioned only for completeness.

A slider nut, included mainly for completeness as they are rarely used.
A slider nut, included mainly for completeness as they are rarely used.

Hexes

The best way to buy hexes today is on spectra, it means that at a push you can clip the rope straight into the gear without a quickdraw. For this you will need one karabiner for each hex. If you double or triple up hexes on one karabiner, they are guaranteed to get in a tangled mess right when you need them.

An alternative to hexes the DMM torque nuts.
An alternative to hexes the DMM torque nuts.

Choose your smallest hex bigger than your largest wire and choose two more hexes up to around a size 9 (three is a good quantity). Some people will carry more, others may carry none, prefering cams. Some rock types take hexes better than cams (e.g. some cracks on the sea cliffs at Gogarth, Wales are very irregular and take large hexes in natural taperings).

Another type of semi-passive large crack protection is the Tri-cam, they are also one of the only reliable pieces of gear for quarried shot holes. They’re a more specialist type of gear, mentioned for completness as an alternative to hexs. A further alternative is the DMM torque nut.

Cams

The range of active camming devices seems unfathomable, but not as complicated as you might think. There are three different types of camming device; the original single solid stem, the single flexible stem and the double exible stem, all have pro’s and cons but they all do the same job.

DMM Dragon Cams and a few other manufacturers now have two or more axles on their cams, giving them a greater range between being fully open and full closed, one cam will fit a greater range of cracks but will weigh more. If you are only going to have a couple of cams on your rack, multi-axled models are a good idea.

A multi-axle camming device with one fixed and one floating axle to give it the maximum range of widths.
A multi-axle camming device with one fixed and one floating axle to give it the maximum range of widths.

Cams provide protection in places that would otherwise be protectionless and although they need to be placed with care, once mastered they can be placed very quickly. The invention of the ‘cam’ helped to push back the frontiers in traditional rock climbing. On long routes, alpine climbs or big walls you will see climbers carrying a very expensive skirt of such devices from the smallest to the very largest.

Manufacturers like DMM and Wild Country now make their range of cams in quarter sizes, meaning that you have the biggest selection of sizes. On long routes, where you may place a lot of gear, such as on mountain routes, sea cliffs or big walls, this option of hav- ing lots of gear can pay dividends. If you only took a few multi-axled cams because they have a greater size range you might end up with noth- ing left to place, whereas with a large number of quarter sized cams you may still have a reason- able range left to choose from. This and the doubled over extension sling means that at a push you don’t need to extend the cam.

A rack of cams
A rack of camsA doubled over sling mean that, at a push, they don’t need extending.
An extendable sling on a DMM cam.
An extendable sling on a DMM cam.
A cam that is not extended enough can walk into a crack as the rope moves from side to side. This can make it very hard to remove the cam.
A cam that is not extended enough can walk into a crack as the rope moves from side to side. This can make it very hard to remove the cam.
A well extended camming device will stop it walking into the placement and reduce rope drag.
A well extended camming device will stop it walking into the placement and reduce rope drag.

Which sizes should you take with you up a route? Look out for any wide cracks, or a route description or route name which suggests one. If it is all wide cracks do you need to take small cams? Starting out a new rack you should perhaps own sizes 1, 2 and 3 in camming devices if going for the more common single-axled cam. As your climbing develops you will notice what size cams would be most useful for the routes your are climbing.

The most important thing to remember about cams is that they can walk out of the placement you put them in if the rope moves the stem. Modern twin-stemmed cams have a doubled over sling to extend them, but it is often prudent and sometimes essential to use a quickdraw as well to add another point of articulation and prevent this from happening.

Quickdraws and extenders

A deceptively simple piece of equipment, which is key to minimising rope drag. You’ll want to carry enough extenders of the right length up a route. This is often based on the length of route, how much it wanders about, are there any roof, grooves or corners that you pass.

Sports climbing quickdraws generally have very short slings for bolted routes where all the bolts are drilled in a straight line to the top. But when it comes to trad routes, nature has seldom aligned all the gear placements. We need to therefore take a good variety of longer length quickdraw with us.

A selection of different quickdraw
A selection of different quickdraw

You will need a set of at least eight quickdraws to begin with, for short routes. Of those you want some long (30cm), some medium (20cm) and a couple of short ones (15cm). It is also a good idea to have a 120cm sling and shortened as an extender like this below, often called an ‘alpine draw’.

Shortening and lengthening a 120cm sling into an 'alpine draw'.
Shortening and lengthening a 120cm sling into an ‘alpine draw’.

Carry a variety of slings both 120cm and 240cm, so you can extend gear a very long way if needed or use them on spikes as you pass. Keep your 240cm slings over one shoulder and across your body, held in place with a screwgate (see below and your 120cm slings across the other shoulder to help prevent the slings tangling. Put your rucsack on before you shoulder your slings otherwise they will be stuck under the bag!

How to carry a climbing sling when lead climbing.
How to carry a climbing sling when lead climbing.

When it comes to racking your quickdraws adopt a system that works for you. Some people have gear on one side and quickdraws on the other. Many leading climbers (because of the amount of equipment they carry) spread them out over all the gear loops.

Something to hold the karabiner for clipping the rope in captive will help prevent it turning upside down (making it hard to clip). A bit of finger tape, an elastic band or castration ring can be used to captivate the karabiner. Some manufacturers quickdraws have a stiched through retainer to hold the karabiner at one end.

Warning – If you use a slings as a quickdraw with an elastic band or simliar to captivate one end, beware that if it gets tangled up in you bag and the sling clips itself through the karabiner (A), then there is a danger that when you untangle it the sling will look OK, from one side (B), but is actually only held on by an elastic band. Check each quickdraw as you rack up.

Check all your quickdraw with captivated eyes to ensure this has not happened. This has cause serious injury and death to some experienced climbers.
Check all your quickdraw with captivated eyes to ensure this has not happened. This has cause serious injury and death to some experienced climbers.

By having one karabiner clearly defined as for the rope means that if you were to go sports climbing and take a few falls the karabiner that has been attached to bolt may well suffer from dinks leaving potentially sharp edges. If you were to clip this damaged karabiner to the rope and fall you will probably damage your rope.

Red for rope or clip the rope into the captivated eye end. Either way you need to have a way to ensure you clip the rope into the same end of the quickdraw to avoid damage that might be done by a bolt or metal gear.
Red for rope or clip the rope into the captivated eye end. Either way you need to have a way to ensure you clip the rope into the same end of the quickdraw to avoid damage that might be done by a bolt or metal gear.

A tweak you may find useful where to make a move up to reach a bolt is too tenuous is to make a ‘gripper clipper’. With some tape and your hold cleaning toothbrush you can create one mini clip-stick to add to your rack. An improvised mini clip stick – the gripper clipper, if you need to stretch to clip in situ gear, one of these can be a god-send. Some people now carry a longer (up to 6m) clip-stick around with them; for clipping the bolts on a sports route, placing a rst wire or brushing holds which are out of reach.

The gripper clipper, an improvised clip stick and a full length clip stick in action as Ceuse
The gripper clipper, an improvised clip stick and a full length clip stick in action as Ceuse

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Clipping Quickdraws

There are several correct ways to clip a karabiner as a running belay and many more incorrect ways. You may be surprised how many people get it wrong or fumble every time they go to clip a rope into what can only be described as the most common piece of climbing equipment. Clipping quickdraws then is a fundamental skill for the lead climber.

Whilst I have describe a few of the more common ways to go about clipping quickdraws but there are other ways that work perfectly well. The trick is to find a method that works for both left and right handed and forehand and backhand.

Some of the more common ways of clipping quickdraws. A - Using the middle finger to stabilise the karabner and the thumb and forefinger to push the rope in. B - Pinching eh carabiner and pushing the rope in with forefingers. C - A slight alternative to the pinch is rather than using the forefinger to push in the rope, is to use you thumb to push the karabiner up ad sideways onto the rope.
Some of the more common ways of clipping quickdraws. A – Using the middle finger to stabilise the karabner and the thumb and forefinger to push the rope in. B – Pinching eh carabiner and pushing the rope in with forefingers. C – A slight alternative to the pinch is rather than using the forefinger to push in the rope, is to use you thumb to push the karabiner up ad sideways onto the rope.
A correctly clipped quickdraw. Where the rope runs up the wall and up out of the front of the karabiner to the climber. Another way to visualise this correct alignment s a little boy pissing into a pot.
A correctly clipped quickdraw. Where the rope runs up the wall and up out of the front of the karabiner to the climber. Another way to visualise this correct alignment s a little boy pissing into a pot.

WARNING don’t back clip

Back clipping is potentially very dangerous, as the rope can unclip during a fall. Always remem- ber to rst arrange the quickdraw so there are no twists, then have the rope going into the karabiner from behind and out through the front towards you. If the route traverse, consider hav- ing the rope running out across the back bar of the karabiner, so the gate is facing the opposite way to the direction of travel, this helps to en- sure that in the event of a fall the rope won’t potentially unclip as it is pulled across the gate.

Try to avoid backslapping karabiners as the rope can run across the gate in the event of a fall cause it to unclip see below.
Try to avoid backslapping karabiners as the rope can run across the gate in the event of a fall cause it to unclip see below.
A rope in the process of unclipping itself during a fall because the quickdraw was backclipped.
A rope in the process of unclipping itself during a fall because the quickdraw was backclipped.

The rope can also fall across the gate of the karabiner during a fall on traverses if the karabiner is round the wrong way. The general rule is to have the spine of the karabiner point in the direction you are expecting the route to take to the next runner or spine in line for short. This way the rope will not run across the gate.

Spine in line of the direction of travel when on a traversing route.

Remember SPINE IN LINE. On traverses try to ensure that the rope comes out over the back bar or spine of the karabiner
Remember SPINE IN LINE. On traverses try to ensure that the rope comes out over the back bar or spine of the karabiner

If it is an essential runner consider having two quickdraws in opposition or using a screwgate on the rope instead. This is only really necessary on very run-out routes so that there is absolutely no doubt in your mind that the runner cannot become unclipped from the rope.

Clipping quickdraws exercise

Whilst stood on the ground and tied into a rope try clipping a quickdraw within easy reach with your left or right hand, with the gate facing left or right. Then try clipping across your body. Be careful not to ‘back clip’.

Turn the karabiner upside down and try again. Which is easier? Hopefully, you will realise that the upside down karabiner is much harder to clip and in future will take the time to ensure the karabiner is the right way up.

Turn your quickdraw the right way up with the gate facing toward the hand you are going to clip with. Use your index nger to hook the bottom of the karabiner and your thumb to push the rope in. Practice with both hands.

Next try clipping the quickdraw with the gate facing away from the hand you are about to clip with. This time place your thumb on the back bar of the karabiner and use your index nger to push the rope into the karabiner. Practice with both hands.

Try the same two methods (index nger or thumb stabilising the karabiner) but this time clip across your body.

Repeat practicing clipping your quickdraws until you are awless, remember to add some random variety to your practice.

Try the same clipping exercises stood just off the ground on a slab from a position of balance. The exercise will feel harder because you are concen- trating on staying in balance.

Try clipping a quickdraw as high above your head as you can reach, by your head, by your shoulders, by your waist, below your waist and by your feet. Which positions feel easier and harder?

Then try you clipping excercises on a vertical wall and then an overhanging wall. How much harder is it? Did you use you teeth to help get enough rope in your hand?

Warning using your mouth to help gather the rope up has lead to some nasty injuries, from losing teeth to breaking the lower and in the worst case breaking the upper jaw. Climbers do this all the time, just be aware of the consequences if you fall at that moment.

Clipping traverse race

With a short section of rope set up a few quickdraws on a low level traverse, and have a race. Is it easier to clip when the runners are in front or behind you on the traverse, and does this change depending on what direction you traverse in? Try this over a number of weeks, does your time improve? This traversing exercise is good practice for belaying a lead climber too.

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Belaying a lead Climber

Your lead climbers life is literally in your hands. There is a big difference between belaying someone on a top rope and belaying a lead climber. When you start to belay a lead climber you need to have someone with experience close at hand, backing you up. A good belayer will pay constant attention to the climber, watching for upward movement so they can pay the rope out at the right time. If the climber is out of sight the belayer has to look at the curve of rope going up the crag and as they see the rope start to straighten or even feel the rope tighten slightly, they need to pay out more rope.

Lead belaying is often a combination between paying out the rope, and then taking the rope back in. This is due to the lead often placing runners above their head meaning that for a moment they are on a mini tope rope, so the belayer need to be able to see or sense this from the movement of the rope in front of them. As well as taking in and paying out the rope either as with top rope belaying or lead belaying the belayer, can help minimise the amount of rope they have to pay out each time by making a step forward or back, it is literally just a step though.

When you are belaying a lead climber you need to pay out the rope as they need it and take it in as well. To aid this you can take a step into and away from the wall when necessary.
When you are belaying a lead climber you need to pay out the rope as they need it and take it in as well. To aid this you can take a step into and away from the wall when necessary.

Attaching the belay device to the rope loop adds a small amount of extra dynamic stretch into the system as the knot tightens. This will reduce the impact force on trad runners or when sport climbing. When belaying a lead climber being tied into the end of the rope makes it impossible to lower the climber of the end of the rope, a common mistake when sport climbing on long routes.

At anytime the belayer needs to be ready to lock the rope off, as the climber could fall off without any warning at all. Although the leader might communicate their situation with a selection of climbing calls, ‘Slack’ – means they want some slack paid out, ‘Watch me’ – means they want you to be really attentive as they are at a tricky move and might fall. ‘Take’ – means that they have either fallen off or are about to, or they are exhausted and unable to go any higher and want to rest on the rope.

The forces involved in a leader fall are far greater than when top rope climbing, as such vigilance is needed at all times. If the climber is a long way above the runner then there is often an opportunity to take in a quick armful of rope and step backwards to take in some rope and reduce the length of fall, however as soon as the weight start to come on the rope the rope needs to be locked off, and the chances are you’ll have to hold on tight and expected to be lifted off your feet.

In terms of positioning yourself it is very important that you stand as close to the bottom of the route as possible. There are two reason for this first if the climber falls off and you are stood a distance from the base of the cliff you will get dragged across the ground, and secondly and more importantly the rope will pull outward and potentially upwards on the first runner out. This can rip the first runner out leading to a cascade effect pulling each runner out until the top one. Not a situation you want to witness.

If you are belaying a lead climber standing too far away from the base of the wall or crag. You will get dragged towards the wall and potentially pull the first runners out.
If you are belaying a lead climber standing too far away from the base of the wall or crag. You will get dragged towards the wall and potentially pull the first runners out.

A further concern for the lead climber is reaching the first gear on a pitch, as such it will be necessary to spot the climber on the first moves until they get a runner in. There is advice on this on the following section on safe bouldering.

Learning to belay a lead climber

There are various way to learn to belay a leader, it is probably best done indoor or on a sport climb as it is a more controlled environment. To start with you can place some slings over some holds on a low level traverse and practice belaying someone close to the ground.

Practising belaying a lead climber close to the ground on an easy traverse in a bouldering wall. This is more about the belayer learning to belay, although the climber can also practice clipping the bolts.
Practising belaying a lead climber close to the ground on an easy traverse in a bouldering wall. This is more about the belayer learning to belay, although the climber can also practice clipping the bolts.

Practicing in a group of three you can have the leader belayed simultaneously on a top rope and on a lead rope ( we call this simulated lead climbing). If your leader is confident in you belaying after completing the simulated lead climb, then move onto belaying the leader for real, but have the person who was belaying the top rope back you up on the dead rope.

To start with the leader should only attempt route that they are confident they can complete without falling, only after a period of consolidation should you consider moving onto harder climbs. A some point it will be bene cial for the belayer to hold a small lead fall. The leader needs to be con dent in the belayer and the belayer needs to be backed up, by practicing indoors you remove the need for the leader to judge whether the runner will hold when they fall.

These progression are also great for the rst time leader as it allows them to progressively understand the added risks of lead climbing. The safety of the leader is mainly reliant on their ability to judge how good the runners are and whether or not they are likely to hold a fall. Judgement which comes with instruction and experience.

Belaying a Lead climber – proceedure

Before leaving the ground it is both the leaders and the belayers respon- sibility to check the both the harnesses are done up correctly, that both leader and belayer and tied into the rope correctly and that the belay plate is threaded correctly and connected to the rope loop made where the belayer has tied in. Attaching the belay to the rope loop rather than the harness belay loop adds a small amount of extra stretch into the system when the knot tightens if the climber falls and by tying into the end of the rope it becomes impossible to pay out more rope than you have to the leader.

The leader then climbs the route, placing runners along the way.

At the top of the pitch the leader needs to place the rst anchor in the belay and clip it as a runner whilst they place at least one other anchor. Only when they have tied into the anchors and adjusted them to get into a good position to look down the pitch they have just climbed should they shout

“SAFE” down towards the belayer.

Then the belayer takes the rope out of the belay device, and when the rope is free shouts “OFF BELAY”.

This is the cue for the leader to pull the slack rope up hand over hand, until it goes tight on the belayer. When the belayer feels the rope go tight on them they let the leader know by shouting “THAT’S ME”.

The leader then places the belayer (now the ‘second’) on belay, and shouts down “ON BELAY, CLIMB WHEN READY”.

Now the second can unclip from their anchor (if they are on a multipitch route) and shout up “CLIMBNG” as they start to climb, the leader then con rms this by shouting “OK”.

At crags by the sea or on windy days it becomes very hard to communicate between leader and second. Here you might have to create you own series of communications based on a number of tugs on the rope, or alternatively small radios are become popular.

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Trad Climbing Belay

When you are trad climbing, you won’t have an extra rope with you to rig a trad climbing belay. As such you need to use the rope you are climbing with to make a belay and then bring up the climber(s).

This system is one of the most pratical in terms of ‘real’ climbing – using the rope tied to us to rig a belay as we would if we had just lead a pitch. It also has the advantage early on that you don’t need both a rigging rope and a rope for climbing on.

The Clove Hitch Exercise

Before we move onto how to tie into an anchor with a clove hitch, we are first going to experiment with this versatile hitch. So tie a clove hitch to a carabiner, with practice you can get very slick at this.

Now tie the clove hitch to a single anchor, and adjust it so you are snug, now try and pay some rope out and move further away from the anchor, again make sure the rope is snug. Then move back in and take in the slack.

Tying a clove hitch
Tying a clove hitch

Now clip a loop of rope through anchor and tie it off to a clove hitch on your belay loop, again try adjusting the length away from the anchor and back towards it. With this method you can easily adjust the tension on the rope when out of reach of the anchors.

Clove Hitch back to a HMS screwgate karabiner.
Clove Hitch back to a HMS screwgate karabiner.

Practice moving back and forwards at least a couple of feet with each method. As adjusting the clove hitch is a key skill in making belays at the top of a pitch of crag.

Tad climbing Belays – In reach/out of reach

Often we are either in reach or out of reach of the anchors we want to tie into,either way you need to work systematically, decide first where you need to stand to belay, then clip the first rope in and adjust the clove hitch so you are snug, only then go on and clip the rope into the second anchor and adjust the clove hitch.

Below shows the in reach method of making a belay on two anchors.

Start tied into the rope like you are climbing. Then attach the clove hitch to the first anchor.
Start tied into the rope like you are climbing. Then attach the clove hitch to the first anchor.
Then clove hitch the rope into the second anchor leaving some slack between the first and second anchor.
Then clove hitch the rope into the second anchor leaving some slack between the first and second anchor.
Finally clove hitch the rope back to your tie in loop.
Finally clove hitch the rope back to your tie in loop.

Next the out of reach belay method is a lot easier and works in most situations both in and out of reach. It is best to use a HMS karabiner to tie the clove hitches back to.

Again start tied into the rope like you were climbing. Then clip a loop of rope through the first anchor and tie it back to your tie in rope loop with a clove hitch.
Again start tied into the rope like you were climbing. Then clip a loop of rope through the first anchor and tie it back to your tie in rope loop with a clove hitch.
Now clip another loop through the second anchor and clove hitch this back to the same HMS karabiner that you tied the first anchor back to.
Now clip another loop through the second anchor and clove hitch this back to the same HMS karabiner that you tied the first anchor back to.

Warning

When rigging at the top of the crag you are at times unroped at the top of a substantial drop. Therefore employing some form of control may be necessary. If setting up a bottom rope this may include clove hitching into one anchor as you approach the edge, this is not a bombproof system so don’t deliberately weight it, but it may prevent a slip becoming a fall. If it is a top roping system, consider having one anchor a reasonable distance back and tie into this, again don’t weight the system until all points are equalised and under tension.

HOW TO CLIMB HARDER Courses

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Gear Placements – Metal Spikes, Pegs and Bolts

Back up in situ metal protection like spikes, pegs and bolts where possible with other protection. Metal spikes and pegs will be most corroded below the surface and whilst you can test to see if it’s wobbly there is little more you can do to check how sound it may be. Rust may appear superficial but hidden below it may have taken hold. Tying off the spike or peg as low as possible will minimise the leverage on it.

A metal spike tied off low down to reduce the leverage on the spike. You can either clove hitch the sling to the spike or wrap the sling round the spike so it prevents the sling sliding upwards.
A metal spike tied off low down to reduce the leverage on the spike. You can either clove hitch the sling to the spike or wrap the sling round the spike so it prevents the sling sliding upwards.

Bolts are a little different as there may be notes on their history in a guidebook. Knowing when the bolt was placed and what type it is will help your judgement. Stainless Steel is less likely to corrode than plain steel. Resin bolts have a longer lifespan than simple expansion bolts. Some of the bolts on crags are little more than 8mm thick and 30mm long and may have been in place for over thirty years. If the bolts are subject to the salty conditions of a maritime environment, treat them with further caution.

Using different metals for the bolt, nut and hanger can cause an electrolytic reaction which will rapidly corrode one part or other. If the bolt has signs of rust and the hanger doesn’t its an indication of mixed metals reacting with each other. Some aluminium hangers react with the bolt, resulting in oxidisation.

Top: A modern long 10mm bolts versus the old 30mm long 8mm wide bolt. What would you prefer to fall on? Bottom Left: A aluminium hanger that has corroded probably due to mixed metal issues. Bottom Right: A stainless ring and rusty steel hanger, this was only paced for a few month before the corrosion was spotted, such is the effect of mixed metals.
Top: A modern long 10mm bolts versus the old 30mm long 8mm wide bolt. What would you prefer to fall on? Bottom Left: A aluminium hanger that has corroded probably due to mixed metal issues. Bottom Right: A stainless ring and rusty steel hanger, this was only paced for a few month before the corrosion was spotted, such is the effect of mixed metals.

Abandoned Equipment

One way to lookout all fixed metal equipment in a cliff is that is is essentially abandon equipment with a dubious history of use and abuse. Whilst in many sports climbing areas there are voluntary groups that check the bolts and re-equip the routes from time to time. This is not always the case.

Even if some bolts are not that old, there are other issues, some bolts have failed as they have been overused and in soft rock. This has lead to bolts pulling out almost by hand after only 5 years of heavy use.

So look at bolts carefully, do they look OK? Do they feel OK? Do they move?

UKROckTour

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Climbing Knots

There are lots of climbing knots and these are in no real specific order. This is currently a holding page to give you an idea of the content we are planning on developing over the coming months.

Fig of 8

Overhand

Clove Hitch

EDK – Overhand rope join

Double Fishermans

Alpine Butterfly

Bowline

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Equalising Two Anchors

To get you ABC and IDEAS right when it comes to the fundamentals of rock climbing belays you will need to understand how to equalise two anchor point with either a sling, a rope or both. There are many ways to go about equalising two anchors this, we are going to concentrate of the most common ways here and explain the pros and cons of each.

Equalising Two Anchors with a sling Exercise

Try equalising two belay points in the three ways show in the photos below.

  1. Overhand on the Bight
  2. Two clove hitches and an overhand on the bight.
  3. An overhand in the sling
Equalising two anchor points with a sling and a overhand knot on the bight. This is the simplest way to equalise a sling, but it does use a lot of sling. There are other ways like the two feature below that use less sling, which may help bring the angle of a belay down to below 90 degrees.
Equalising two anchor points with a sling and a overhand knot on the bight. This is the simplest way to equalise a sling, but it does use a lot of sling. There are other ways like the two feature below that use less sling, which may help bring the angle of a belay down to below 90 degrees.
Equalising Two Anchor points with a sling. Left: with two clove hitches and a overhand knot. Right: With an overhand knot tied onto the sling. Both methods use less sling than the simple overhand method, but are slight harder to adjust.
Equalising Two Anchor points with a sling. Left: with two clove hitches and a overhand knot. Right: With an overhand knot tied onto the sling. Both methods use less sling than the simple overhand method, but are slight harder to adjust.

Try moving the anchor points further apart until you get into the situation show below. Try equalising them with a simple overhand on the bight and then with an overhand on the sling. Note how the obtuse angle has been reduce to below 90 degrees.

A sling that whilst obeying most of the IDEAS principles of a belay, is displaying an angle of over 90 degrees. To remedy this we can do what is in the image below.
A sling that whilst obeying most of the IDEAS principles of a belay, is displaying an angle of over 90 degrees. To remedy this we can do what is in the image below.
A well equalise sling using the overhand on the sling method to ensure the angle is below 90 degrees.
A well equalise sling using the overhand on the sling method to ensure the angle is below 90 degrees.

Equalising Two Anchor Points with a rope

Sometimes you may well have run out of slings or even better have a spare rope to rig a belay at the top of a crag. In this case equalising two anchors can be achieve in the way shown below.

Equalising two anchors with a rope is simple to doing it with a sling. Start by tying one end to an anchor with a fig of 8 on the bight. Next give yourself enough of a loop and then tie the rope back to the second anchor with a clove hitch. Final make the system independent and equalised by tying a fig of 8 or overhand knot in the rope/
Equalising two anchors with a rope is simple to doing it with a sling. Start by tying one end to an anchor with a fig of 8 on the bight. Next give yourself enough of a loop and then tie the rope back to the second anchor with a clove hitch. Final make the system independent and equalised by tying a fig of 8 or overhand knot in the rope/

Learn-to-rock-climb

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